The City Space

Cultivating Urban Understanding


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Why We Need to Slow the Cars

Accident scene at State and Grand.  Hope she's OK.

It happens every day. An innocent person is crossing the street at a corner when suddenly, a car comes barrelling towards her and kills her in an instant. The driver wasn’t drunk or even texting, so we treat these scenarios as “accidents.” We shake our heads and say, “There was no way to prevent this tragedy.”

Well I call bullshit.

Cars are the most dangerous thing most Americans encounter on a daily basis, and our streets and cities are designed to let this happen. The best way to make our cities and towns safer is to get cars driving slower. I have no problem with people driving 70 mph on the highway–that’s a system intended to move vehicles quickly from one point to another, and pedestrians and bikes are not present in that system. What I do have a problem with is cars driving 40 mph through a neighborhood where children are playing, people are biking home from work or walking to the store. Although we’d be safest without them at all, cars can coexist with bike and pedestrians in an urban environment. But only if the cars are slowed considerably. Continue reading


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Respect the Renter

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Over the last decade, the percentage of renters in America has fluctuated between 33 and 36%. Yet, in spite of the fact that ⅓ of all Americans are renting their housing, there seems to be a notion in many neighborhoods and towns that owners are the main people who matter and the only ones who are going to be valuable members of their communities.

Indeed, I have encountered many community development organizations whose entire focus is increasing the amount of homeowners in a given neighborhoods and connecting them with grants, loans and classes to help them keep their houses looking nice and safe. This is an admirable mission and clearly has a positive impact on the people and communities that it serves. However, I have also encountered the opposite end of this owner-centered sentiment: an utter dismissal of renters as merely “transient” and “disengaged” in their communities, which sometimes becomes outright anger and prejudice towards them…

Read the rest on the Strong Towns blog.


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A Recipe for Success

Brady Street 2015

Milwaukee, WI has made more frequent appearances on this blog, now that I live here, but usually I write about it in something of a critical light. I walk its streets every day, so I see the good and bad that goes on here, and it’s usually more productive to write about the bad, and constructively brainstorm ways to make it better. However, today I want to talk about Milwaukee in a wholly positive light.

Brady Street Milwaukee

I’m going to talk about one specific street here—Brady Street—because I think it is a fantastic model for a thriving, positive neighborhood street. Brady Street is one block from my house and it serves as a commercial anchor for the East Side of Milwaukee. The businesses here range from a hardware store to an STD clinic, from a Waldorf school to a Catholic church, from a Mediterranean nightclub to a popular sushi café, and from a dingy sports bar to one of the best wine bars in the city. It would take days to explore every storefront on this lively avenue. The street runs parallel to the river and it’s tucked in something of a residential area, yet it’s a busy, bustling thoroughfare with so much to offer. This is due to several important factors that I hope to see in more neighborhoods around the country: Continue reading


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The College Campus: A Pedestrian Paradise

Pedestrian Bridge University of MN

Last weekend I went home to Minneapolis to visit my parents and also meet with a professor in the University of Minnesota’s Urban & Regional Planning department (where I’m exploring potential graduate school options). Stepping onto the University’s campus (which I admittedly, didn’t spend any time on growing up, despite the fact that it’s in my hometown), I was immediately struck by how wonderfully pedestrian friendly it is. This is true for most college campuses, but it’s been a while since I’ve had reason to go to one, and my own alma mater was so tiny that it didn’t feel particularly remarkable that it was walkable. It was basically one big square block. But this, the University of Minnesota, home to 40,000 students, is a mini-metropolis completely accessible on foot. I’ve heard other urbanists talk about what a great model college campuses are for walkability and good city design, and seeing it in person really brought that point home. Here are a few photos and observations to showcase this. Continue reading


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Pedestrian Right of Way

Nearly every day in this country, pedestrians are killed by cars. I’m not just talking about drunk drivers. I’m talking about your mom or your little brother walking across the street on their way home when suddenly a car barreling down a residential neighborhood at 40 mph because he needs to get to the grocery store right now, strikes and kills them instantly. When we talk about crosswalks and lower speed limits and wider sidewalks, we are talking about life and death. If you want to hear a truly tragic story of a young mother and child recently killed while crossing the street on their way home from the library, listen to this Strong Towns podcast episode.

I want to briefly demonstrate for you the absolute carelessness of the majority of drivers in an every day situation, through a quick video. Now thankfully, I didn’t die doing this.

In this video, you’ll see me walking up to a crosswalk, which is clearly marked with signs on both sides of the street and white painted lines in the road. Then you’ll see how dozens of cars (and a city bus!) completely disregard my presence and my right of way. I’m posting the Wisconsin law regarding pedestrian right of way below (which is very similar to most state laws) so you can understand exactly how these drivers are breaking it. In summary, legally, cars must yield to pedestrians or wheelchair users who are in a crosswalk, and even to pedestrians who are crossing in a place where a crosswalk would theoretically be, if the city had bothered to paint it (i.e. any intersection). You can scroll down past the legalease if you want to just watch the video.

340.01(10)

(10) “Crosswalk” means either of the following, except where signs have been erected by local authorities indicating no crossing:

(a) Marked crosswalk. Any portion of a highway clearly indicated for pedestrian crossing by signs, lines or other markings on the surface; or

(b) Unmarked crosswalk. In the absence of signs, lines or markings, that part of a roadway, at an intersection, which is included within the transverse lines which would be formed on such roadway by connecting the corresponding lateral lines of the sidewalks on opposite sides of such roadway […]

346.23: Crossing controlled intersection or crosswalk.

(1) At an intersection or crosswalk where traffic is controlled by traffic control signals or by a traffic officer, the operator of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian, or to a person who is riding a bicycle or electric personal assistive mobility device in a manner which is consistent with the safe use of the crosswalk by pedestrians, who has started to cross the highway on a green or “Walk” signal and in all other cases pedestrians, bicyclists, and riders of electric personal assistive mobility devices shall yield the right-of-way to vehicles lawfully proceeding directly ahead on a green signal.  No operator of a vehicle proceeding ahead on a green signal may begin a turn at a controlled intersection or crosswalk when a pedestrian, bicyclist, or rider of an electric personal assistive mobility device crossing in the crosswalk on a green or “Walk” signal would be endangered or interfered with in any way.

346.24: Crossing at uncontrolled intersection or crosswalk.

(1) At an intersection or crosswalk where traffic is not controlled by traffic control signals or by a traffic officer, the operator of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to a pedestrian, or to a person riding a bicycle or electric personal assistive mobility device in a manner which is consistent with the safe use of the crosswalk by pedestrians, who is crossing the highway within a marked or unmarked crosswalk.

In the video (which I filmed on New Years Day), I walk a few feet into the crosswalk and wait patiently as car after car blows past me. Eventually, I get fed up with waiting and start to walk into the middle of the road, where the first lane of traffic is persuaded to stop. Then finally I keep walking into the second lane where cars just barely hit the brakes before entering the crosswalk and hitting me. I actually put my up, motioning the drivers to stop (although you can’t see that since I am filming from my perspective).

Forgive the expletives (or put the video on mute, the sound is not really necessary), but when I have to risk my life just walking home every day, I get pretty angry about it.

That is the state of pedestrian safety today. And this video is taken at a designated crosswalk! In spaces without signage or painted lines in the road, the cars blow by continuously in an even more dangerous manner. Pedestrian safety is not just the battle cry of angry hippies. It is a necessary component of all city planning and road design. It is the difference between life and death for your child walking home from school, your friend riding her wheelchair, your father taking his dog for a walk, your grandpa on his way to church and you, wherever you choose to go that does not involve a car.

So please, if you’re a driver, always stop for pedestrians. And if you’re a pedestrian, know that you have an absolute right to be where you are. It’s only by continuing to declare our presence and the value of our lives that we can move into a future of greater safety for everyone.


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The Car Conundrum

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I’ve never owned a car in my life. For the first time though, I have actually started to consider it as an option. Part of me is so committed to the car-free movement that I can’t imagine letting go of my stance, but part of me wonders about the practicality of car ownership in certain regards.

I didn’t have a car as a teenager (my parents were kind enough to let me use theirs if I needed it) or during my college years so I have been holding off on this moment for a long time, not wanting to make that big purchase or shift my lifestyle in such a drastic manner. Previously I convinced myself I didn’t want the headache of constantly hunting for a parking spot, and I didn’t want to have to think about the price of gas or allocating part of my paycheck toward car insurance. But now I’m mulling over some other factors in my mind. So, let me walk you through the line of reasoning that began to point me in the direction of car ownership. Then I’ll reveal whether I ultimately decided to go for it or not.

First, I’ll lay the scene: I live in an apartment close to several bus lines in downtown Milwaukee, a mid-size city with adequate, but not great, public transit. I take the bus to work every day. I also take the bus to various activities around town, but a lot of what I do to get places is walk. I walk to my volunteer shift at the homeless shelter nearby. I walk to the grocery store every week. I walk to the commercial strip a few blocks away for food and drinks. I walk because I enjoy it. I also walk because the exercise is beneficial, because I get to experience the city in a personal way and because walking is free.

I like this lifestyle, and so far, my schedule can afford the extra time it takes me to get places in this manner. However, there are a few factors that have been weighing on me and making me rethink my decision to own a car.

Here are the factors that are making me reconsider:

  1. Winter is fast approaching and suddenly my pleasant strolls through downtown Milwaukee look more like bundling in five layers and hunching my body against the freezing wind while I dodge ice patches. Standing at an uncovered, unheated bus stop for several minutes each day looks equally unappealing. The idea of being able to cruise toward my destination in a warm pod sounds pretty darn nice right now.
  2. As a young woman, I have had various well-intentioned people tell me it is unsafe to be out walking or waiting for the bus by myself after dark. These people want me to get a car. I think I would feel safer traveling by car instead of walking.
  3. My back hurts from carrying bags of groceries. On the one hand, having a grocery store within walking distance is an incredible blessing. On the other hand, walking home from the grocery store with bags full of food is one of my least favorite activities. I have to plan my purchases based on what weighs the least and stagger my heavier purchases in multiple trips. It’s a pain.
  4. A car might not actually be that much more expensive than my current modes of transportation. I get by on a mix of bus trips, walks and Lyft rides. My unlimited bus pass costs $64 a month and my Lyft rides (which amount to maybe 2 or 3 a week when I don’t feel like taking the bus or don’t have the time to do so for whatever reason) add up to around $80-100 a month. Surely the price of gas, insurance and even a car loan or lease would be around that, right? Especially if I split those costs with my boyfriend, who is also carless.

Modes of transport venn diagram

Well, I weighed all these significant factors. I even went back to that Venn diagram I concocted a few months back that details the advantages and disadvantages of biking, walking, driving and taking public transit. But in the end, I still came down solidly on the side of my current lifestyle, and I decided not to purchase a car at this point. Let me address each of the above issues and tell you why it still wasn’t enough to convince me to buy a car:

  1. To account for the cold factor, I had to think about my morning routine in the winter. Right now, a few minutes before I’m getting ready to leave for work, I’ll start checking the Milwaukee County Transit System “Real Time” website, and when I see that my bus is arriving in 6 or 7 minutes, I head out to the stop, wait a minute or two for my bus, then hop on it. Total time out in the cold: 6 or 7 minutes, and 5 of that is at a brisk walking pace. If I had a car, my routine would look more like this: Trudge out to my car, turn it on, start scraping snow and ice off it, start defrosting the windows, jump inside and begin driving to work. Unless I had a really top-notch heating system, I suspect it would take a solid 10 minutes or so for the car to heat up in the cold months of a Midwestern winter. Thus, my total time in the cold is around 10-15 minutes, depending on how far I had to walk to reach my car. So the verdict is: on a normal day, a car is actually the less warm option. Of course, in circumstances where I am taking the bus somewhere different and have to, say, wait for a transfer, or walk several extra blocks to a particular location because it is farther off the bus route, then the car is a warmer option. But on average, I’m not better off in a car than in a bus when it comes to weather.
  2. Now, to the question of safety. Once in a car, I am certainly safer than I would be walking outside alone. However, if I owned a car, I would still have to walk outside to and from that car multiple times a day because my apartment doesn’t have a parking lot. In my dense neighborhood, it’s not uncommon for residents to have to park several blocks away from their apartments. So, under my current circumstances, a car would not completely eliminate my time outside alone. Furthermore, in a way it creates even more of a risk for me. Currently, someone might see me as a small female, and therefore a great target for a robbery. However, if I had a car, that someone would see not only my physical features, but also my automobile asset, making me an even more desirable target. On the other end of my trips, I might be able to park closer to my destination and keep myself a little safer, but I’m still going to have to park in my neighborhood and walk home at some point. The bottom line is, I’m street smart and I do the best I can. If someone wants to rob me, then my having a car is unlikely to stop them, and may actually make them more interested in targeting me so they could get my car too.
  3. Addressing the third factor of carrying heavy groceries is not so easy. Carrying groceries is down right pain, and it would definitely go away if I had a car (for the most part). That being said, if this was such a bother to me, I could shell out $25 for one of those collapsible shopping carts and save myself thousands on a car. Case closed.
  4. Here’s the clincher: Price. Supposing I did get a car, and even supposing that I shared all related costs (loan payments, insurance and gas) with my significant other, I ultimately conclude that it’s still more expensive to make that investment. First, car loans are a rip-off. Second, having a car would not completely eliminate my need to purchase bus tickets or Lyft rides. No doubt, I would be taking the bus sometimes if my boyfriend needed the car, or taking a Lyft if I was planning on drinking that night. So, sure I might only spend a third or a quarter the amount of money on those that I currently spend, but the cost would still remain. Finally, and this is one of the most important hidden costs to consider, I have to factor in parking tickets. Milwaukee is notorious for its vicious parking cops. They will ticket you anywhere at any time for any infringement possible. So, even though parking is technically free near my apartment and by my office, I’d undoubtedly be swallowing the cost of a few parking tickets, or at least plugging parking meters, if I owned a car.

 
Finally, there’s the intangible deterrent to car ownership: stress. I like to be able to roll up to my destination and walk right in without having to factor in the unknown of hunting for a parking spot, much less paying for one. I don’t want to have to worry about whether my car door will be frozen shut on a -5 degree day, or whether it will start at all. I certainly don’t want the added stress of factoring in all these additional costs each month. In the end, this was a straightforward decision for me.

One important note: You’ll recognize that there are a few key elements that make my car-free lifestyle doable. One is the Real Time bus website. If your city doesn’t have this, you’re far more inconvenienced when it comes to taking the bus, and you could spend countless extra minutes at a stop if the bus is running late or you’re unfamiliar with the schedule. Another significant element is the availability of Lyft (or Uber, if that’s your thing). For those unfamiliar, Lyft and Uber are phone apps that allow you to request a ride from any number of certified, background-checked and highly-rated drivers in your area at pretty much any time, for a price that is often lower than cab fare. Lyft is pretty big in Milwaukee, which means that if I ever miss a bus, or feel unsafe taking a bus, or don’t have the option of a bus because it doesn’t go where I need to go, Lyft is there for me. If that was not the case, and I had to rely on rides from friends or cab rides or the bus alone, I’d be much more unwilling to undertake this car-free lifestyle. Finally, probably the single biggest factor that makes living without a car possible is my location. My apartment is close to four different bus lines, including one that takes me directly to my office in about 20 minutes. I have grocery stores, pharmacies, restaurants, and even hardware stores within walking distance of my house, so I never have to hop on a half-hour bus trip just to get toilet paper.

Geography is often the number one argument I hear from people defending their need to own a car. In one sense, I buy it. If your job is in a factory 10 miles south of town, surrounded by cornfields, and then you work another job right after your shift in a bar 20 miles north of that, the bus is probably not going to cut it. If you live in a suburban development that’s 25 miles from the downtown where you work and 3 miles from anything besides other houses, you’re going to feel like you need a car. My response to that is 1) jobs and living arrangements are somewhat based on choice, and 2) I know people who manage all that and still use public transit. And they don’t only exist in New York City.

I put this train of thought out there in the hopes that you’ll think through your own reasons for owning a car, besides just force of habit. Really walk through the pros and cons and the key arguments before you fritter away your time and money in an automobile.

Have you ever made the jump from owning a car to not owning a car, or vice versa? What influenced your decision?


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The Strong Towns National Gathering

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Small group brainstorming session at the National Gathering

Could a child in your city safely walk or bike to her friend’s house?
Does your town have any public spaces besides streets and sidewalks?
Are the businesses in your city owned by national corporations or local residents?
Do you know your neighbors? 

I first learned about Strong Towns —an organization that asks all these questions— in 2012 while undergoing a crash course in urban development after starting work at the Housing and Urban Development Agency. My boss at the time pointed me in the direction of this bounty of urban education and critical thinking on the Strong Towns blog and podcast, and I’ve been invested ever since.

Strong Towns began in 2008 with a civil engineer named Chuck Marohn, just blogging about his ideas for improving his small town of Brainerd, MN. A couple years later, he was joined by Jim Kumon, who turned the blog into a nonprofit and became its director. Then the two them began giving simple talks called “Curbside Chats” in nearby towns, where they asked questions like the ones I mentioned above, provided ideas for diversifying transportation, and helped citizens and town leaders think about fiscally sound ways to use their towns’ money. At the beginning of the Curbside Chat, only 2 or 3 people would show up. Chuck and Jim slept on peoples’ couches. But slowly it grew. They have now completed over 180 chats, added many volunteers and contributors, and gained over 400 committed Strong Towns members across the country. This is a national movement, and I am proud to be part of it.

This past weekend, I had the chance to attend the first ever Strong Towns National Gathering in my hometown, Minneapolis, MN. Continue reading


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The City That’s Best for Everyone

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I worry sometimes that urbanism, and specifically New Urbanism (if you are familiar with that movement) comes across as mostly thought-up by and crafted for wealthy young people. There are so many images of trendy warehouse lofts and pop-up jewelry stores floating around that you might get the idea that urban development is just another hipster scheme that we should file away as only applicable for those people. But let me tell you why that’s not the case.

The urbanist movement, which advocates for things like improving walkability, encouraging small business growth, and developing downtown residences aims to make life better for everyone in the city. Young, old, male, female, white, black, brown, able-bodied and disabled.

For instance, walkability is not just a buzzword tossed around by white twenty-somethings who want to be able to stroll home after a night at the craft-beer bar. No, walkability is an urban asset that benefits children, seniors, disabled people and low-income people by providing them with access to amenities around town that don’t require them to drive or pay for an automobile. The same goes for public transportation. When walking and taking the bus are more common forms of movement, that movement is no longer a commodity hoarded by the rich and the able-bodied. 

How about the urbanists advocating for new cafes and local food eateries in their neighborhood? Do these new restaurants merely provide the wealthy with one more food option to choose from on date night? I hope not. Rather, a variety of new local restaurants can meet the need for everything from quick food to celebratory meals at a wide range of price points. Better still, local restaurants provide jobs for neighborhood residents. That’s the ideal toward which urbanists are striving.

Another example of urbanist activism is parklets and sidewalk expansions (read this post for background on those). But these are not just trendy, summer hang-out spots for young people with time on their hands. Instead, they are traffic-calming mechanisms that reclaim the streets for pedestrians and decrease car accidents and deaths.

What about those repurposed warehouses that are converted into mixed-use residences and stores? In fact, many of them come with designated affordable living units in addition to market-rate apartments. A condo building with residences on the top floors and businesses on the bottom floors can also create opportunity to live and work in close proximity, and it makes room for new businesses to flourish.

I think the best city for everyone is a city where each resident accomplishes what he or she needs to accomplish—whether that’s getting groceries, going to work or attending school—and feels at home in that environment—whether it’s an apartment, public housing, a senior center or a single-family house. The best city for everyone is also a city where all who wish to can afford to live—not necessarily in the biggest, fanciest home, but at least in a comfortable, safe abode. Urbanist ideas are furthering all these goals. You only need to look past the hipster façade in order to recognize the powerful transformations that are happening for all residents in cities across the country.

Here’s another fantastic article by The Black Urbanist responding to similar criticisms of the new urbanist movement.


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Toilet Talk

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Diving right into a decidedly unglamorous topic today, but one that matters to everyone on a daily basis, the bathroom. Who hasn’t had the experience of strolling around a city really needing to use the bathroom and being unable to find anywhere to go? It’s more than just an inconvenience. The unavailability of bathrooms can make people less interested in visiting and walking around cities, preferring to stay at home or stick to the malls and stores they know well where a bathroom is always within reach. They’re not enjoying their cities, interacting with their neighbors or contributing to local economic growth.

In particular, a lack of bathrooms limits pregnant women, parents with babies, people with certain medical conditions and children who aren’t always the best at holding it. And let’s be frank; for all of us it’s an annoyance and frustration when our afternoon plans are derailed by the hunt for a bathroom. We’re stuck feeling uncomfortable or being forced to pay for some beverage we don’t want, just to entitle us to use the coffee-shop bathroom. Besides the need to actually use the toilet, there are also a number of other reasons one might desire a bathroom—for instance, washing your hands for hygiene or religious practice or grabbing a tissue to blow your nose. So, truly, this is a universal problem.

If you’re stealthy like me, you handle the bathroom issue by mentally cataloging all the free restrooms you know of, or the ones you’re comfortable sneaking into: inside libraries, supermarkets, hotels, fast food joints and parks. But this only works if you know the city well. If you’re visiting a new city for the first time and your four-year-old suddenly asks for the restroom, you’ll most likely be faced with a row of restaurants whose hostile signs reading, “Bathrooms for paying customers only,” leave you with few options. As it currently stands, restrooms are largely the purvey of private businesses like cafes and bars, for which the use of the facilities is directly related to your purchase of goods at the business in question. However, as human beings, regardless of whether we eat lunch at the pizza joint or grab a pint at the pub, we will need to use the bathroom at some point during our day, even if all we’re doing is walking around. Thus, if cities want to encourage more use of their public spaces and their unique amenities, they ought to equip them with the appropriate restrooms.

Now, while a few cities do a top-notch job of providing commodes at easily accessible locations, most fail us. New York is particularly notorious for this—so much so that many restaurants don’t even offer bathrooms due to their small quarters. On the other hand, Washington DC—another popular tourist destination—provides more than enough restroom opportunities in highly trafficked areas through its free Smithsonian Museums, and other bathrooms at the national monuments. These options make it easy to take a quick pit-stop, maybe even see a famous statue while you’re at it, then be on your way.

Another alternative is the European angle—“50p to pee”—as we liked to say when I lived in Ireland (“p” meaning “pence,” the Irish equivalent of cents). For Americans who are used to free bathroom access, it can seem absurd to pay money to use the toilet in a mall or public square, but at least it’s available when you need it. I bet we can all remember a time when we would have gladly paid someone 50 cents for the use of their restroom.

I think any city that wants to get serious about welcoming tourists into its walkable areas and encouraging its residents to spend more of their time downtown, needs to implement a public restroom strategy, examining highly trafficked areas and equipping them with the proper facilities. If the city needs to charge 50 cents for each restroom visit, that’s fine by me, but however they manage it, bathrooms should be a priority as much as clean streets or garbage cans. They don’t have to be fancy, or large, or perfectly clean — they just have to be there when you need them.


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3 Half-Assed Attempts at Walkability

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I made it to Milwaukee, WI, my new home! (Although that photo is not what it looks like now. Not for a couple months at least.) During my first few days here I saw the apartment we’re moving into soon, cooked and baked more than I have in weeks, and adjusted to a new freelance schedule. So far the biggest shocks to my system after moving from NYC have not been the lack of skyscrapers, the Midwestern accents, or the quiet atmosphere (praise the Lord for this). No, the biggest change has been the drastic shift in my transportation options.

Milwaukee is definitely a car-centric city, but I do not have a car (nor do I have plans to procure one)—just my feet and a bus pass. I was prepared for this, but it’s still a huge change coming from New York, which is the land of quick, cheap and easy public transit.

One thing I noticed upon my preliminary attempts at traveling by foot was the half-assed nature of walkability in this place. The city is chipping away at it’s auto-oriented streets with sidewalks, crosswalks and more, but none of these are quite accomplishing what they’re supposed to because they weren’t invested with the proper amount of forethought and intention in the beginning. This is not unique to Milwaukee by any means. It’s also not a bad thing at face value: better to have some sidewalks than none at all, right? However, as someone who is always looking for ways to improve cities, I have to take them to task when they half-ass their walkable places. Here are three of those half-assed attempts, and ideas for how to make them better:

1.  The sidewalk that suddenly terminates. Here’s what it looks like: You’ve charted your course to the grocery store and you’re making good time on the sidewalk. You can see the store two blocks ahead of you when all of a sudden, you realize that the sidewalk is about to end and only way forward is in the road. We usually encounter these interruptions near busy, multilane streets where the focus is obviously on the driver, so much so that it appears the engineers forgot that there might be pedestrians around.

Solution: It’s probably not doable for most towns to interconnect every one of their sidewalks, but at the very least, Continue reading